Fear and courage seem incompatible. From early childhood we shrink before the charge that we’re afraid, a “scaredy-cat”. Yet we’re taught that “fear of the Lord” is one of the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit. And the sacrament of confirmation is supposed to confer the Holy Spirit upon us to make us brave and courageous. Are fear and courage compatible? After all, one of the foundational virtues of the Christian life is courage (along with prudence, justice and temperance). How can two things so different from one another both be recommended to us? We think of the martyrs of the church, who underwent terrible torments. What courage! They certainly could not have been afraid. Courage is a matter of one’s testosterone’s level, so we’ve come to believe. But, if so, how could so many of the early martyrs have been woman, even young girls, with no testosterone whatsoever? We look to Medal of Honor awardees. Were they afraid in doing what earned them such an honor? Absolutely, they tell us. Can fear produce courage? Doesn’t fortitude preclude fear? On a (Lutheran) church sign standing in its front yard, in the small town of Escanaba, (Upper) Michigan, is the message: “Courage is fear that has said its prayers.” No fear, no courage, only a high testosterone level. Does this mean that one who experiences no fear cannot be courageous? Or would an injection of testosterone give us courage?